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Incredible TOP 10 architectural structures of the Ancient World



Modern technology and innovative developments allow architects and builders to bring to life the truly spectacular projects.However, most of them still can't compete with architectural wonders of the Ancient World. Many buildings of that era is shrouded in mystery.




how could people build such a "colossus", not having lifting cranes, bulldozers and even cement, as these buildings have survived to our days? Some of the questions historians have found the answer, others are probably will remain a mystery to us. So, we have prepared for you a list of 10 impressive monuments, built in the era of the Ancient World.




The great wall of China

The great wall is the largest monument in the world. It was built over several centuries for protection against the raids of nomadic warlike peoples. The total length of building exceeds 21 thousand kilometers. The first phase of construction took place in the III century BC It was supposed to be delineate the Northern border of the Chinese state. It is noteworthy that participation in construction took about 20% of the then population of China.


At that time, China was split into several separate States with their ruling clans, therefore, the sections of the wall were built separately, but eventually mud "cuts" were connected. After unification into a single Empire, it reached the peak of its power and wealth (II century BC).



 With the expansion of the territory needed better protection, so the Emperor Qin Shi decided to make the wall longer. The great wall of China all increased and increased, and the last "extension" was made in the period from the XIV to the XVII century ad
It is noteworthy that this is the only man-made structure that can be seen from space without the use of optics.

Megalithic temples of Malta

The megaliths are called structures of the late Neolithic period and Eneolithic, consisting of huge boulders. They are mostly found in Europe, Asia and Africa, but the most interesting monuments of that era are on the island of Malta.



The Maltese megalithic temples are among historical monuments under the care of UNESCO. Archaeologists believe that the construction of the structure dated to 3150 BC Ancient temple complex is considered gigantea (built between 3600 and 3200 BC), located on the nearby Malta island, Gozo. And also, the complex includes the Hal holiday home (3300 — 3000 BC), although this temple has its own number in the list of monuments under UNESCO protection and the Islands (3150 — 2500 BC).




Almost all the temples built to host religious rituals, namely the worship of the gods of fertility, accompanied by sacrifices. Hal holiday home could also serve as a place of burial. According to preliminary estimates of archaeologists there rests about 7 thousand ancient Maltese.

The great pyramid of Giza

The great pyramid of Giza is located among a complex of pyramids, built on the homonymous plateau. They were intended as the ancient "mausoleum" for the Pharaoh Cheops (Khufu), so you can often come across such a name. Archaeologists claim that its construction took place between 2580 — 2560 BC To us and to this day not open the mystery of how the Egyptians in such a short period of time were able to build a huge pyramid of boulders, each weighing several tons.



The great pyramid is the most massive and majestic of all the Egyptian pyramids. Next to it was erected as the pyramid of menkaure (menkaure) and the pyramid of Khafre (khafra). For a long time it was the tallest architectural structure on the planet. It is interesting that initially the pyramid was lined with shiny limestone white, casting a glare of the Sun. However, after the sack of Cairo by the Arabs in the second half of the XII century, the locals took the white limestone from the pyramids to rebuild homes burned in the city.
By the way, hotshot.eu.org there is a very fascinating article about the mysterious pyramids, which have baffled scientists all over the world.

The leaning tower of Pisa

We have all heard about the leaning tower in the Italian city of Pisa. But what is the reason of its inclination? Previously it was thought that this artificial decline, conceived during the construction, however, later historians have proved that the tower leans as a result of miscalculations builders, who established a small Foundation in 3 meters high on a soft soil. The height of the tower at the highest point reaches 56,67 meters.



The construction of the leaning tower of Pisa began in the second half of the XII century and lasted for almost two centuries. Indirect "blame" for the erection of the tower is a rich Italian Berta di Bernardo, who bequeathed to the Church a certain amount, which was acquired boulders included in the Foundation. The first phase of construction was stopped 5 years after the start of construction. At the time it was built 3 floor, noticing that the tower leans, the builders gave up the work for a good 20 years, having been engaged in the strengthening of the soil. Interestingly, the bell tower was built separately from the tower (XIV century), and has a smaller slope. To stop the fall of the tower are only at the turn of XX-XXI centuries, several aligning design. If before the tilt angle exceeds 5º, now it is 3.54 degrees. I hope the tower does not align completely, because in this case it will lose its charm.
Don't miss the interesting article on hotshot.eu.org about TOP 10 tilted towers, to compete with the leaning.

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is in India, and combines the functions of a mausoleum and a mosque. It is protected by UNESCO as a world heritage site. The greatness of the Taj Mahal says unofficial title of "the pearl of Muslim art".



The construction of the building began in the first half of the seventeenth century and took just over 20 years. To begin construction of the mausoleum was ordered by Sultan Shah Jahan I. He built for his wife, who died during childbirth. Few years later here were buried, and the ruler of the Empire of baburids. The erection of the Taj Mahal was created by the best architects of that time. Various works were carried out 22 thousand builders from all parts of Asia.



Rare materials required in the process of construction of the mausoleum were brought not only from distant parts of India but also from Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Tibet. Is used while scaffolding made of bamboo, was used in brick forest. The design was so great that the architects were afraid of its disassembly it takes years. Then the Sultan allowed the peasants to take as many bricks as they can. During the night scaffolding was removed.
Unfortunately, in recent years, the Taj Mahal lost some of its white façade turns yellow because of air pollution. Despite several measures taken for the preservation of color of the mausoleum, it is constantly forced to "update" clay bright colors.

The Mosque Of Sultan Ahmed

This splendid mosque built in the early seventeenth century — a historical monument and a treasure of world architecture. It is also known as the Blue Mosque or Sultanahmet Mosque. The construction of the mosque was a kind gift of Allah, presented to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I.



In the three years before construction began, the Ottomans were at war with two countries: the Holy Roman Empire and the Safavid state. After losing the war to the Europeans, the Sultan decided to propitiate the Almighty, building an impressive mosque.



Interestingly, all the previous rulers of the Ottoman Empire took the money for the construction of mosques from the spoils of war, however, Ahmed was not a great General, so he had to pay for the Blue mosque out of his own pocket.

The Alhambra Palace

The Palace or the Alhambra, included in the same architectural ensemble, located in the southern part of Spain, Granada. It is shocking how the beauty of the facade and the incredible richness of the interiors. This is truly an architectural marvel of the Ancient World.



The construction of the Palace was carried out by several emirs of Granada for more than two centuries, until the city was captured by the Catholic kings (Isabella I and Ferdinand II). Near the mosque and Palace amerski Europeans erected several buildings, among which worth mentioning the Catholic Church and the Palace of Charles V.



In the period of the Napoleonic wars the French were going to destroy the Alhambra, but their plans were prevented by their own soldiers. According to legend, he his body extinguished the burning cord that led to the explosives planted under the Palace.

Stonehenge

This megalithic building is located in the South of Britain, situated near the town of Amesbury. How are all listed in the list of architectural monuments, Stonehenge is among the objects protected by UNESCO. The structure is a few huge boulders, stacked in a particular design.



The round shape of the structure allowed historians to assume that Stonehenge was used as a clock or calendar. However, later scientists came to believe that he is the cemetery, as the property was discovered human remains. The burial was carried out in the period from 3000 to 2500 BC



It is believed that the construction of Stonehenge took place in several stages, stretching for almost a thousand years. Interestingly, together with the remains of people buried in about 5 thousand years ago in the vicinity of Stonehenge were also found human bones, the study showed that they belong to the XVIII — V centuries BC.

Borobudur

This religious structure is located in Indonesia, and has the common name of the stupa, which are of hemispherical shape of the "tops" of buildings. And Borobudur several temples built for the worship of the Buddha. The construction of the architectural monument, is also listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO, dates back to the VIII — IX centuries ad.



Hard to believe, but such a magnificent architectural complex at the time was simply forgotten, and hundreds of years hiding in the jungle, covered with volcanic ash. Why oblivion still remains a mystery. Some scientists suggest that the reason the volcano eruption that occurred in the early eleventh century, others say that Borobudur was abandoned by people in the first half of the IX century for 80 years before the eruption.



In the nineteenth century, the complex was subjected to frequent plunderings on the part of merchants ancient artifacts. In the early twentieth century, the Borobudur was in a poor state as: soft soil, exposed to constant erosion and dense vegetation, povrejdatee wall, threatened to destroy a historic monument. Fortunately, in 70-80 years was carried out major restoration of Borobudur, allowing you to save a magnificent building for future generations.

Chand Baori

Original Chand Baori was called "City of Brightness" or Abha Negri in the same city, but over time, the city was renamed Abhaneri, giving a new name and an architectural structure. Chand Baori is well with multistage design. The depth of the well allows to accommodate in this modern nine-storey building (30 meters).



It was built Chand Baori in the period between IX and XI centuries of our era.
By the way, about this place we wrote extensively in our article about the most beautiful staircases in the world. I advise to watch!



Inside the well, of course, is water, however, it is so murky that swimming in it is prohibited. Tourists are only allowed to wash his limbs, however, often people (mostly locals) fall into the water, putting their lives at risk. Well water is so harmful that it can kill in just 3 days. To reduce the number of accidents caretakers Chand Baori mounted railing, cladding of the steps of the well, but does the handrail stop the adventurer who wants to see the bottom of the "pit" Durga and Ganapati?